Technical Articles

Technical Information About Network Attached Security Systems

IP Camera

Want to know how the IP camera works, or the advantages of network attached IP door control systems, or how to install the IP intercom and emergency paging systems? Here’s everything you need to know about the latest network-attached technology. Learn how the technology works and how to make use of it.

Many of these articles are from our Newsletter. Take a look at a sample of out Technology Notes Newsletter, and If you want to receive a copy just fill out the contact form. More technical information and application notes are available in our blogs and videos.

The easiest way to assure you get the right system is to let us help. We have a lot of experience so we can help you select the right system for your application. Not only do we provide the best pricing, our technical support is free. Just contact us for assistance.

Frequently Asked Questions

Getting Started With Your IP Camera System

IP Camera

Surveillance and Security Objectives
Before purchasing anything, you need to establish what you would you would like to accomplish.

Understanding the IP Camera
How the IP camera works includes a great tutorial video.

IP Surveillance Systems compared to CCTV Systems
What’s better? IP camera systems are replacing the older CCTV analog camera systems. IP cameras offer major benefits over the older systems. Here is a review of the differences between the technologies.

Selecting the Right Camera System
By answering all the questions in this article, you will have all the information you need to define the exact system for your application.

Complete Surveillance System
A complete Surveillance system consists of IP cameras, software, and video storage. In this article, we put it all together. We create a real-life requirement and then assemble a complete surveillance system. Everything is included from the cameras and lenses to the mounting brackets and power supplies.

Specifications for IP Cameras
Before purchasing your IP Cameras, it’s best to understand the specifications. Specifications to consider include the resolution, lens, light sensitivity, and dynamic range.

Determine the Right Lens and Resolution
required for Your IP Cameras. The resolution of the camera and the lens define what you will see. The resolution of the camera defines what detail you will see while the lens will determine how far away the image is from the camera and how wide an area (the Field of View) you can see.

What are Video Servers, NVR, and DVRs
Video Server, Network Video Recorder, Digital Video Recorder, all three devices will record and store your video but exactly how do they differ? This article describes the pros and cons of each type of system.

Detection, Recognition, Identification: The New Criteria
We use the Johnson criterion to predict how far away we can see something using a specific camera and lens.  The criteria define the threshold for detection, recognition, and identification (DRI). The industry has used this criterion since World War II. It has not been updated to reflect today’s technology and resolution requirements.

IP Camera Buyers Guides and Reviews

Backlit Image

Buyers Review and Guide to IP Camera Systems
In this second review, we tested Axis, Sony, Canon, and Hikvision to determine if they met their published specifications and how they performed against each other.

Long Range Camera Systems – Custom Vs. Off-the-Shelf
While custom-made cameras are best for very long-range applications, the latest off-the-shelf cameras provide some of the same capability for less money.

What is the Best IP Camera?
The answer is, it depends. It depends on what you want to do. This article reviews the important features for different applications.

What is the Best 4K IP Camera?
We reviewed 4K cameras from Axis, Hikvision, Samsung, and Sony.  We tested resolution, low light capability and other features of these very high-resolution cameras.

What is the Best Price for Your IP Camera System
The other day I was walking down a street in Manhattan and I saw a guy selling watches. There was one watch that looked just like an expensive Rolex but cost only $50. What a deal, I thought. We consistently try and find the best deal, but sometimes forget that “you get what you pay for”. I know I do. How many times have we gotten burned by this? I’m not sure how to tell if the watch is worth $50, but I can provide some guidance about what to consider when purchasing an IP surveillance camera system.

Buyers guide and comparison chart for IP Camera Recording Systems
We compared Video Management Software (VMS) to NVRs and Cloud video recording services.

Thermal versus Optical IP Cameras
Thermal and optical IP cameras use different technologies to capture video. Each type of camera system provides a unique role in an IP video surveillance system.

IP Cameras Price Versus Performance
How much should you expect to pay for your IP camera? Do you need a camera for a small room or an outdoor camera that can recognize a person over 300 ft. away? This article compares the price to the performance of IP cameras

Understanding the IP Camera Technology

Cartoon Chart

The Intelligent IP Camera
Intelligent IP cameras are providing advanced detection capability. These advanced cameras can tell you if someone has taken your laptop or if someone is screaming in the lobby.

Extreme Environment IP Camera Enclosure Systems
Do you need to view a rocket launch or the inside of a blast furnace? This article describes how high-temperature camera enclosures are made.

How Surge Protectors Work
or the Lightning’s Thief
Surges caused by lightning and other power disruptions can damage cameras as well as network switches and computers. This article describes how these surge protectors work and where to use them.

Understanding Camera Specifications
IP camera specifications include resolution, low light sensitivity, wide dynamic range, signal to noise, etc.  What do all the specifications mean in real-world application?  This article reviews what specifications are important for your specific application.

Defining the Low Light Sensitivity of IP Cameras
The low light sensitivity of an IP camera is a very important specification. It will determine if we can use the camera at night or in a dark room. Here’s how to set up your camera for the best results in low light situations.

How ALPR Works
Learn how the automated license plate recognition systems work. Besides the analytic software that converts the image to computer characters, the system requires a good IP camera. It also requires proper lighting and the correct physical placement of the camera.

What is an Explosion Proof Camera?
An explosion-proof camera is one that can be used in a hazardous potentially explosive environment.  This means that the camera system will not cause an explosion, rather than survive an explosion outside the enclosure.

Understanding IP Camera Resolution Specifications 
High-Resolution Mega-pixel Cameras are Not all Alike.  This high resolution allows you to zoom in on portions of the video and still have enough resolution to identify a person’s face or license plate number.  You can even zoom in on the stored video, providing a distinct advantage over manual PTZ cameras. Cameras are available with 5 or more megapixels of resolution.  But how much resolution is required?

Seeing in the Dark
Can you see as well as an Owl? Many of the cameras can.
There are choices of cameras available ranging from low light, IR sensitive and thermal imaging types. This article describes the differences in the technology.

What is an Explosion Proof Camera?
An explosion-proof camera is one that can be used in a hazardous potentially explosive environment.  But, what standards need to be met for a camera or camera enclosure to be considered explosion proof?

What is Bandwidth and how much is Required
Are you having trouble with your cable connection? Are there problems with your telephone system? This article introduces you to the concept and helps you determine what Internet bandwidth is needed for sending video and audio.

Viewing Your IP Camera from the Cloud 
Cloud recording services can be used to provide remote recording and viewing of your IP surveillance camera system.  It replaces the local video recording system, but does it actually work?  This article reviews the technology and what you can and can’t do with a remote server and your mobile smart cellphone device.

Wireless IP Cameras
There are a number of ways to create a wireless network for your IP camera. Some cameras have built-in wireless radios while other systems rely on separate radios.  Which is better?
Here’s a review of the wireless technology.

How Face Recognition Works in a Crowd
Facial recognition used to identify a person’s face in a crowd is different than biometric access control systems. They have different requirements and challenges.

IP Camera Motion Stabilization
When you are using a long-distance lens (higher focal point), it is hard to keep the camera steady. This article describes the various mechanisms used to stabilize an IP surveillance camera.

IP Camera Recording Systems

Video Management Software

There are three types of recording systems: Video Management Software, Network Video Recorders (NVR), and Cloud service systems. Each one provides some unique capability. We provided a summary of video recording systems available on our web page, and these articles provide more details about this important video recording function.

Buyers Guide and Comparison Chart of IP Camera Recording Systems
We compared Video Management Software (VMS) to NVRs and Cloud video recording services.

Real-time IP Camera Systems
Many video recording systems support general alarms from the IP cameras, but only a few are able to identify each type of alarm and then react to the specific threat. For example, you may detect that a box was left in the lobby.

How to Ensure Video Chain of Evidence
It is important that video digital evidence follow the rules for the chain of evidence so it will be acceptable by the courts. It must be treated just like fingerprints, confiscated weapons, and other physical objects that need to be authenticated in court.

What is the Best IP Camera Recording System
There are NVRs and VMS systems, but what is best for you?

Software for Your IP Cameras
There are a number of different video management system solutions available.  This article reviews a number of different VMS products available,  Your application will determine the best product for your IP camera system.

Real-Time IP Camera Systems
This article describes the newest way that IP camera systems are adding real-time functionality that handles the uncertainty of real-time security.

About the Lens for IP Cameras

Camera Lens

The lens is one of the most important components of the IP camera system. The right lens allows you to see exactly what you want to see (field of view), with the clarity (resolution) you require. Take a look at our white paper about Selecting the Right Lens, and also read the following articles for more comprehensive information about the lens.

Selecting the Right Lens and Resolution
The resolution of the camera and the lens define what you will see. The resolution of the camera defines what detail you will see while the lens will determine how far away the image is from the camera and how wide an area (the Field of View) you can see.

Calculating the Angle of the Lens
How to calculate the viewing angle of the lens is important so you can know the maximum distance and field of view to expect.

Applications that use IP Camera Systems

Montana College of Forestry

IP Cameras in Action: Fighting Fires with Technology
How the University of Montana College of Forestry uses the IP camera system

Can Drones Help Firefighters contain Wildfires?
Due to the prolonged drought in California, the number of wildfires in that state alone is 123% of the state’s average. The National Guard launched a Predator Drone to aid firefighters by using infrared sensors to detect hot spots along the fire’s perimeters or in isolated spots.

Creating Safe Environments with IP Access Control, IP Cameras, and IP Paging
Providing a safe environment is as old as the days when people lived in fortress enclosed towns. Today we can use technology instead of sentries on the ramparts. We can provide the three basic elements required for a safe haven: Create a barrier that prevents unauthorized people from entering; situational awareness; and third, alarms and notification to allow the proper response to situations.

How to Answer Your Door with Your Mobile Device
Now it’s easy to get a notification on your smartphone that someone is at your door. You can then see who it is and talk to them, and finally unlock the door. It’s all done with your mobile smartphone.

IP Camera Systems and the Police
As police come to depend more and more on the forensic assistance IP camera systems can give, they are also becoming increasingly frustrated when a video is of such poor quality that it cannot be used to furnish positive identification of a suspect.

How Syracuse, NY is Using IP Cameras

This report from the field describes how Syracuse added their surveillance camera system.  The police call their camera network the Criminal Observation and Protection System, or COPS for short. Believing in transparency, the city lists the location of all its cameras on a special COPS Cameras map.

Integration of Mobile Smart Devices and Door Control
Convergence is a word that means many things to many people; just try Googling it. But when applied to ConvergenceTP LLC, a company specializing in IP appliance connectivity to video management systems, has the best definition The merging of distinct technologies, industries, or devices into a unified whole. ConvergenceTP designed their Event Streaming Engine (ESE) to add value to the world of IP cameras that use video management software (VMS). It makes it possible to wed video surveillance to access control.

Integration of IP Cameras, IP Audio Systems, And Door Control Increase Security
When we integrate IP cameras with other network attached devices such as intercoms, paging systems, and door control we can create a physical security system that increases your safety.

Using an IP Camera with Audio
IP cameras are getting more and more sophisticated. Many of the newer cameras include two-way audio that can be used with an intercom.

License Plate Recognition
A twenty-first Fact of Life. How it works.

About IP Network Attached Door Control Readers

Door Access Control System

The latest door access control readers connect directly to the network. The controller is built into the reader so you don’t need an additional control panel. This type of system dramatically reduces installation time and cost. Here are a number of articles that explain this latest IP door control technology.

The Evolution of Access Control
Remember when access control was limited to fitting a key into a lock and turning?  Door control systems have come a long way, and now are easier to install and much more reliable.

Biometric Door Access Control
Biometrics provides one of the most secure ways of granting access.  It authenticates the person rather than the card that they carry.  Biometric identification includes fingerprint, handprint, and facial recognition.  The latest technology includes both facial recognition plus body motion and shape.  It is one of the more reliable biometric solutions available.

Review of the Biometric Authentication
This document reviews a number of different biometric systems.  It compares fingerprint authentication and facial recognition.

Advanced Door Access Control
Wouldn’t it be nice to be able to push a button to initiate campus-wide lockdown? What about integrating IP door access with your IP surveillance system, or controlling what floor a person can go to in the elevator? Or, maybe you would like to use the access system as a visitor management system? Well, the latest network-attached access control systems provide these advanced features as well as many others that can make it easier to control security.

Access Control Software
Which is better, cloud subscription or on-site licensed software. This article describes the pros and cons of both access control software solutions.

How does Fingerprint Readers Work?
Fingerprint readers detect the features of a person’s fingerprint and create a digital code that is used as a unique digital template.

How Does Facial Recognition Work?
There are two primary methods for capturing and matching facial information.  This article reviews the technology available.

Door Access Control Review
Remember when access control was limited to fitting a key into a lock and turning?  Keys and keyholes may still be sufficient for residential use, but are all but obsolete at most workplaces, having been replaced by IP access cards and card readers. But cards, too, are going through a flux of change.

Access Control Software
Cloud versus on-premise software. What is best for you?

How to install an IP Door Control System
Everything you wanted to know about how to install and control a door from a remote location.

How to Integrate Door Control With Other IP Systems
Door access control systems have become much more sophisticated, and easier to integrate with other security systems. These new IP door readers integrate with IP video systems, and IP intercoms, providing a much more secure environment.

How to Answer Your Door From Your Mobile Device
Now it’s easy to get a notification on your smartphone that someone is at your door. You can then see who it is and talk to them, and finally unlock the door. It’s all done through your mobile smartphone.

Automated Emergency Notifications and Response
When seconds count, a single-button alert system is essential for your organization’s safety. Whether you need to establish a lockdown or let everyone know about a fire, the rapid notification capability is important.

Advanced Door Access Control
Door access control systems provide many new features and functions. This article describes the advanced capability of the door control software. For example, they integrate IP door access with your IP surveillance system. They can control what floor a person can go to in the elevator.

About IP Intercoms and Paging Over Networks

Paging System

Classic paging systems utilize large amplifiers with wires radiating out to all the speakers in the building. But what do you do when you need to make announcements to many buildings in a campus. Network attached intercoms and paging systems make it easy to make campus-wide announcements. Whether you need to make an emergency announcement or just communicate to one classroom or office the PA and intercoms over IP make it very easy to do.

Paging and PA Over IP
You may have heard about Voice over IP or VoIP, well now it’s paging over IP. This new Public Address system provides Voice and Intercom over the network. But how does this all work?

Review and Comparison of the Classic Paging System to the New PA over IP Systems
This article compares the cost of installing a classic paging system versus the latest network-attached PA systems.

Integration of Audio and Video With IP Cameras 
An intercom can be used to manually control a door. It can be used with an IP camera so you can talk and see who’s at the door.

Comparison of IP Intercoms
Pros and cons of different IP intercoms.

Let the Recorder Beware
Discusses the legal issues of recording audio.

Select the Right Speaker
How to get the best sound requires some planning. Understanding all the speaker specifications will help you make the right choice for each area.

How Loud is Loud, Selecting the Right Speaker
This article discusses how to determine how loud your PA system should be and how to specify the type of equipment you need.

Automated Emergency Notifications and Response
When seconds count, a single-button alert system is essential for your organization’s safety. Whether you need to establish a lockdown or let everyone know about a fire, the rapid notification capability is important.

About Optical and Computer Storage

Optical Disc Storage library System

There are a number of ways to store information – including hard drives and RAM. One of the most archival or permanent storage systems is the optical disc. The latest Blu-ray optical discs are placed in a disc library or jukebox. You don’t have to worry about a disc crash since nothing touches the disc surface. Here are some articles that describe this technology and the older DVD storage devices.

Comparison of Archiving

Review of the Current Optical Jukebox and Library Technology
Blu-ray wins the standards war and becomes the technology of choice.

How Blu-ray optical discs work
You may know about Blu-ray discs which are used for holding high quality movies, but do you know how they are used by computers for holding lots of data.

How to handle all the Information that needs to be Archived
Meeting the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act

About Malware Protected Computers

Protecting Your Computer from Malware
This article reviews how you can use modified hard drive systems that prevent data from being changed. These Write-once storage systems protect computers from viruses, ransomware, and other malware.


Blogs and Videos


For more information take a look at our blog. Our blog includes articles that describe how the technology works, how it is used and even jokes and cartoons about the technology.

Videos Describing the Technology

We also have entertaining and informative videos on our YouTube channel. Here are some examples:

Technical Support

IP camera systems can be complex because they include many different components that have to work together. Kintronics is a resource for engineering and integration of all your security projects. We can design your complete system so don’t hesitate to contact us for assistance.

After purchasing your system we make sure that it works exactly the way you expect. You can contact us for help with your installation and any technical support you may need.

We provide technical support and warranty support. Contact us at 1-800-431-1658 (in the USA) or 914-944-3425 (everywhere else) whenever you need assistance.